Shore temple at Mahabalipuram. Kailashnath temple at Kanchipuram. Brihadeshwara temple at Thanjavur. Meenakshi- Sundareswara temple. Virupaksha temple — Pattadakal. Temple architecture, is well written and is all new information. Where can i find more about — Srirangam Lord Ranganatha Temple architecture. They must have been a different breed of Indians, because Indians today are finding it impossible to build roads, drainage, and town planning.
Temple Architecture and Sculpture – Hindu, Buddhist and Jain (Indian Culture Series – NCERT)
Your email address will not be published. Iasmania — Civil Services Preparation Online! The biggest Ratha was called as Dharamraj Rath and smallest one was called as draupadi Rath. Dharamraj Rath is considered as precursor of Dravidian style of temple making. Hoysala temple. Saurabh Yadav February 27,pm Reply. Leave a Reply Cancel Reply Your email address will not be published. Pub Ad. Pol Science. History of Modern India.
Indian Polity by Laxmikanth. Indian Economy - Ramesh Singh. Environment by Shankar IAS. Geography through maps. IAS Prelims Papers 1.
IAS Prelims Papers 2.We will also see Buddhist and Jain architecture. When you browse our earlier articles on Hindu Temple Architecture, you would realize one thing.
It was a gradual evolution starting from the rock cut- cave temples to monolithic rathas which finally culminated in structural temples. The basic form of a Hindu structural temple consists of the following. Rekha means line and it is a tall straight building with a shape of a sugar loaf. It covers the garbhagriha. It is a square building with a pyramid shaped roof and is mainly found for housing the outer dancing and offering halls.
It is a rectangular building with a truncated pyramid shaped roof. Temples of the female deities are usually in this form garbhagriha usually and will have a resemblance with Dravidian temples of the south.
The Pallava temple architecture can be classified into four groups according to the rulers and the features of temples they constructed. Nandivaram Group:. Ravan Phadi cave, Aihole, Karnataka:.
The period of 5 th to 14 th centuries was not only the period of the development of Hindu temples but also were the equally vibrant period for the Buddhist and Jain architectures. We write simple, easy to understand articles, but always ensure high standards of quality.
Downloading as PDF for personal use is permitted. If that is so then additional walls would have been made between the outermost wall and the temple building and hence the inner most would be the newest one. So plz make it clear whether walls are built one around another inward or outward because as per the text it seems they are built inward.
One of the best compilations on Indian culture available on the internet. Thanks a lot, Clear IAS team for the great work. This is very good blog about temple and I love your descriptions and this place look like great to visit. Thanks for sharing blog. Could you please tell me some authentic sources from where i can refer more about jain architecture of south India? Wrong information about Siddhesvara mahadev Temple.
It was not built by Pala Rulers, who were primarily buddhist supporters. Probably the best article on Indian Temple architecture. Thanks a ton! Your email address will not be published. Notify me of follow-up comments by email.
Notify me of new posts by email. Learn more. Table of Contents. Learning is not complete without the right practice. Get instant access to 40 online mock exams!Development of structural temples: A Dravidian language: 7th and early 8th century C.
E and further to Sri Lanka. Tamil Dravida tradition: attained high degree of scale, complexity in planning-however conservative in architectural form and detail. Most dominant feature in Dravidian Chola temples The vimana is divided into various tiers or storeys by the arrangement of miniature shrines of three types, namely, the sala rectangularkuta square and panjara apsidal.
The arrangement of the pillar elements improvise from their Pallava examples in terms of elaboration and additional elements. The temple with its massive proportions and simplicity of design provided inspiration for future designs in constructions not only in south India but also in south-east Asia. Each side of the sanctuary has a bay emphasising the principle cult icons. The circumambulation winds around the massive lingam in the garbhagriha and is repeated in an upper storey The inner mandapa leads out to a rectangular mandapa and then to a twenty-columned porch with three staircases leading down.
The majestic upapitha and adhishthana are common to all the axially placed entities like the ardha-mahamandapas and linked to the main sanctum but approached through a north-south transept across the ardha-mandapa which is marked by lofty sopanas.
Pilaster, piers, and attached columns are placed rhythmically covering every surface of the Vimanam - The Kumbam Kalashathe apex or the bulbous structure on the top of the temple is carved out of a single rock and it weighs around 80 tons raised to its present height by dragging on an inclined plane of 6.
It is the first structural temple built in South India by Narasimhavarman II, faade and gopuram completed by his son. An example of a complete temple complex, consisting of a garbhagriha, antarala, mandapa enclosed by a cloistered enclosure wall with an entrance gopura. The plan layout : a typical Pallava sanctuary. The temple's foundations are made of granite, which could withstand the weight of the temple, while the super structure including the carvings are all made of sandstone.
The vimana of the temple, above the main shrine sanctum sanctorumis square in plan and rises up in a or pyramidal shape. The pillar elements with mythical animal shapes lions on the base are extra features in Pallava style. At the entrance, the gopuram walls are plastered. Its entrance wall has eight small shrines and a gopura, precursor to the main gopura. Located and seated comfortably at the eastern end of the temple area placed on a raised platform. Lion pillars are found at the corners which originally supported the mandapa, the superstructure of which has fallen down.
Courtyard of the temple complex surrounded by smaller shrines framed by pillars rising from the heads of rampant lions, typical of the Pallava style. The sanctuary enshrining the linga is covered by a four-storeyed vimana. In front of it stands a pillared pavilion mandapa decorated with sculptures of rearing yalis and Shaiva figures.
This leads to another hall before the cell surrounded by a circumambulatory passageway. The walls of the vimana and the attached shrines are a house of absolute riches of aivite iconographic forms. This can be called as the richest of all Pallava shrines in terms of figural decoration.
Parts of the temple including the vimana were painted however only patches now remain. They were composed in bright colors. Not only on the inner walls of the cell shrines but also the sculptures have the paintings. The paintings on the plain walls show various aspects of iva.As an art and heritage lover, I have travelled to many historical sites in the country but Tamil Nadu seemed to have eluded me.
With the three great living chola temples on my mind, I sat down with a map and planned a 10 day road trip through Tamil heartland. And was I not surprised and overwhelmed. This state is full of stories and here stones speak eloquently! Though temples were on my mind, I made sure not to miss seeing the Pichchavaram mangroves that are a mere 20 minutes drive away from the Thillai Nataraja Temple in Chidambaram.
Here I recall my journey not in the way I took it but how Dravida style of temple architecture has developed. Post Sangam Age, Tamilakkam, which was more of a cultural identity than a geographical entity was the crucible of development of a fabulous style of temple architecture known as the Dravida. Dravida style temples were first constructed by the Pallavas.
The Dravidian Style of Hindu Temple
During their long reign, art and architecture of early Dravidian period bloomed and thrived. The rock cut as well as built architecture pioneered by them continued to be the inspiration and base for the architecture of peninsular India whose development continued for many centuries thereon.
The journey of rock-cut architecture in Tamil Nadu started with King Mahendravarman I commissioning the construction of Laksitayana cave temple at Mandagapattu. It imitated the interior of a timber building akin to the Buddhist rock cut caves of Maharashtra.
The cave and its pillars showed Chalukyan influence and have well defined mukha mandapa, ardha mandapa and three shrines. The Panchapandava caves at Pallavaram and Rudravaliswaram cave at Mamandur were amongst the series of rock cut caves that followed.
Mamallapuram is what we know today as Mahabalipuram — the place that I found as spectacular as Hampi is. Scattered with magnificent structures and ruins. Koneri Mandapa, Varaha mandapa, Mahishasuramardini caves, at Mamallapuram can be considered the earliest examples of this style.
Narasimhavarman also introduced free-standing monolith rathas. These rathas carved out from hard granite and 9 in number, are important milestones in the development of Dravidian temple architecture as they show the development of multi-storey Vimanas. These storeys known as Tala are stacked onto each other with the upper tala necessarily being smaller than the lower one, making it appear like a stepped pyramid.
Mamallapuram was the Pallavas laboratory of experimenting with various construction styles and sculptural details. Here you see rathas from a single storey Draupadi ratha to three storeyed Dhramaraja ratha structuring and with varying number of Talas.
Pallavas also experimented on the roofing style of the rathas. Draupadi ratha, the smallest ratha, looks like a hut with its curved dome like roof, Arjuna and Yudhisthir ratha have pyramidal roofs while the Bhima ratha has wagon vaulted roof and, Nakul-Sahadeva ratha is a horse-shoe shaped building topped by a wagon vault with an apsidal end.Dravidian architecture Pallava Airavateswara temple
The Dharmaraja and Arjun ratha here are the most important ones as they influenced the later form and development of Dravidian temple architecture. Similarly, various theories also suggest the possibility of the wagon vaulted Bhima and Ganesha rathas influencing the design of Gopurams — the most striking feature of south Indian temples.
Successive Pallava kings — Rajasimha and Nandivarman continued the legacy of their predecessors and constructed beautiful structural temples. The exterior of this temple mainly features the pilasters with rearing Vyala at their base. A gopuram makes an appearance in this temple, while a prakara surrounds the entire temple, with a row of mini shrines running all along its inner face. After the Pallavas came the mighty Cholas. The long period of wait from the fall of early Cholas till the resurrection of Cholas hereafter referred to as medieval Cholas is known as a dark period in Chola history.
The great empire which once ruled Tamilakkam became extinct in its own land with the rise of Pallavas and Pandyas.
Dravidian India, Vol. 1
Since no other source except Manimekalai mentions the name of King Vallivalayan, this myth remains a tale whose historic veracity is yet to be confirmed. The Cholas, under the suzerainty of the Pallavas and Pandyas, had held onto their ancient capital — Urayur near modern day Trichy and continued to have influence over areas around like Thanjavur, Trichy, Mayiladuthurai and Pudukkottai. Taking advantage of the continuous wars between the Pallavas and Pandyas, Chola king Vijayala captured Thanjavur and added large parts to his territory.Pallavan Style.
AD Pandya Broadly the classifications would be as follows:. The dia of the column Heavy bracket for capital- wooden origin of a beam and bracket Roll moulding added in later examples This roll cornice was ornamented at.
Architectural treatment and sculptures combining with architecture. Faade contains- roll cornice decorated with KUDUS, above this a parapet or attic member formed of miniature shrines, a long one alternating with a short one The executor was primarily a sculptor Basement was so planned and executed to provide a long and narrow receptacle for water for ablutions.
The early pillars were the rudimentary type of beam and bracket This was modified to a sophisticated design of the capital and the shaft Finally the introduction of an element- lion This figure was incorporated into the lower portion of the shaft and later at the capital This lion symbolised the ruling dynasty Simhavishnu Details: Sq. A natural leonine figure a deviation from a grotesque horned lion in the mandapas Fluted banded shaftStambham Refined necking- Tadi Melon Capital Kumbha Lotus form Idaie.
Seven pagodas exist, reproduced from wooden examples Beam heads, rafters, purlins, all transferred into rock Exteriors are completed and interiors are incomplete Unknown purpose of execution. Decorative brackets simulate Sahadeva Ratha: the ribs of the vault Reproduces the basilican plan with an apsidal end and a barrel vault roof Faces the south, 3 stories high.
Consists of 3 stories the last of which is 13m high No internal space other than galleries with columns at the entrance It is a large scale version of Arjuna Ratha with a larger no. This concept led to the different arrangement of The placement of the cella in the the parts in the layout east left no space for the mandapas, forecourts and gateway N.
These were hence placed in the rear of the shrine The central structure is surrounded by a massive enclosure wall, with the entry on the western side of the courtyard. Halfway along the corridor was a pillared arcade containing an altar probably for Naga worship as all the courts and passages around could be filled with water Series of carved panels on the side walls.
At Pudukottai- Sundareswara at Tirukattalai, Vijayalaya at Nartamalai These show the Dravidian style in its formative stages Use of well dressed granite Pallavan influence observed in the vimana - similar to the rathas Similarities to the Chalukyan in shape of the domical finial of the shikhara, which is similar to egs. Surrounded by 2 walled precincts The first one measures m x m consisting of a high wall running along the banks of the river Kaveri The 2nd wall consists of a portico with a double row of pillars, measures m x 75m The Temple is entered through The perimeter wall forms a rectangular cloister which could be divided into 2 squares The center of the 1st square contains the Nandi Pavilion and the 2nd contains the Cella Over the cella is the main Gopuram 60m high and 15m at its base.
Plan The Garbagriha is a mere 5m square surrounded by a thick wall with a narrow corridor Axial planning The main cella is preceded by 2 hypostyle halls and a narrow. Square vertical base Vertical base: 2. Tall tapering body Square of 82 rising to a ht. Domical finial 50 The square vertical base rises for 2 stories to accommodate the Linga which was increased in ht.
Pyramidal roof: The surfaces are adorned with the horizontal lines of the diminishing tiers The Cupola at the summit is contrasted with the minged niches on all the 4 sides.
Derivation of the Cow gate- City gate- Temple gate- Gopuram Considerable political changes were taking place. The most threatening force from the north - the allconquering hordes of Islam.
This threat made the Pandya rulers hurriedly throw up makeshift battlements around their cities and the heart of their towns -the temples. This called for modifying the Temple to a Fortress which was unacceptable To change the outer covering, i.
The solution was hence to raise the gates of the fortress to the level of architecture. This was the genesis of the famous gopurams, or entrance gateways of the temple.
Entered by a rectangular doorway in the center of the long side Similar to the Egyptian Propylons Sloping or battered sides The lowest 2 stories of the tower are vertical, of solid stone masonry providing a stable structure for the super structure The superstructure was composed of brick and plaster Superstructure : Pyramidal in shape Diminishing tiers The angle of slope from the vertical is The forms and ceremonies became more elaborate leading to the arrangement of buildings for the activities The increase in the structural form was due to the wider powers given to the deity.
Planning of the temple: Deity : The cella or Garbagriha was dark, symbolic of the return to the womb experience in temples The inner portions of the temples were hence strictly reserved for the sacred habitation of the god On certain occasions the deity is led in procession to take part in festivals, for which purpose temples utilised the outer precincts To hence satisfy the requirements of these rituals the temple resolves itself to 2 main primary formations.
Inner Areas or Cella: Wholly covered and sancrosanct The Cella and the Portico form the sanctum origin of temple Cella was enclosed within another flat roofed hall to protect the original sanctuary and to emphasize the sacredness Pillared aisles were added entrance through a small gopuram in front on the east Later the covered court was enclosed within a similar structure. Outer Areas: The entire composition was enclosed within a rectangle by means of a high wall The remaining space was left to provide a wide open courtyard or Prakaram The enclosure was entered by Gopurams, one on the E and W The Gopuram on the E was the principal doorway and largest Various structures were erected inside - pillared halls or Mandapas and subsidiary shrines Semi religious buildings such as granaries, store rooms for ceremonial supplies Later concentric rectangles were added contained within higher enclosing walls leaving another open space between the inner and the outer perimeters 4 entrances adorned the four walls in the center at the cardinal points.
Each consisted of a Gopuram larger than the previous one within the outermost enclosure 2 large important structures were builtThousand Pillared Hypostyle hall and a Square Tank of water for ablutions, lined with steps and surrounded by an arcade.Post a Comment. Friday, 21 February Dravidian architecture.
Dravidian style temples consist almost invariably of the four following parts, arranged in various manners, as afterwards to be explained, but differing in themselves only according to the age in which they were executed:. It is always square in plan, and surmounted by a pyramidal roof of one or more stories; and it contains the cell in which the image of the god or his emblem is placed.
Besides these, a temple always contains tanks or wells for water—to be used either for sacred purposes or the convenience of the priests—dwellings for all the various grades of the priest-hood are attached to it, and numerous other buildings for state or convenience.
The lowest layer, consisting of a brick shrine, is one of the oldest of its kind in South India, and is the oldest shrine found dedicated to Murukan. The Rathas in Mahabalipuram-Tamilnadu. Pallavas were pioneers of south Indian architecture. The earliest examples of temples in the Dravidian style belong to the Pallava period. The earliest examples of Pallava constructions are rock-cut temples dating from — CE and structural temples between — CE.
There are excavated pillared halls and monolithic shrines known as rathas in Mahabalipuram. Early temples were mostly dedicated to Shiva. Contrary to popular impression about the succeeding empire of the Cholas pioneering in building large temple complexes, it was the Pallavas who actually pioneered not only in making large temples after starting construction of rock cut temples without using mortar, bricks etc.
Needless to add that in the Telugu country the style was more or less uniformly conforming to the South Indian or Dravidian idiom of architecture. The Government of Tamil Nadu uses this temple tower as part of its symbol. Detail of the main vimanam tower of the Thanjavur Temple-Tamilnadu. These are the earliest specimen of Dravidian temples under the Cholas.
His son Aditya I built several temples around the Kanchi and Kumbakonam regions. The maturity and grandeur to which the Chola architecture had evolved found expression in the two temples of Tanjavur and Gangaikondacholapuram.
In a small portion of the Kaveri belt between Tiruchy-Tanjore-Kumbakonam, at the height of their power, the Cholas have left over temples, with the Tiruchy-Thanjavur belt itself boasting of more than temples.Among the massive amount of Hindu temples in India there are two main types of temple styles, a specific temple style seen in the north and one in the south. Temples in India have had a distinct difference in style since the very first temples were built in the fifth and sixth centuries CE.
Geographically, the northern temples can be found from the Himalayas to the Deccan, from Gujarat to Orissa and Bengal in the east.
However, the southern temples are found almost exclusively in the southern part of the subcontinent. The main purpose of the Hindu temple was to create a link between persons and gods, and gave a site for gods to be seen by human beings; both southern and northern temples do this. However, the structural make up of these temples is what sets them apart from one another Michell Northern temples, in contrast, have walls with a curved incline, unlike the pyramidal southern style temples.
Additionally, southern temples rise in a much steeper fashion than north temples. Southern temples tend to have a distinctive moulded base, different from the northern style Hardy Additionally, southern temples frequently have an octagonal overall shape to them, something not seen in northern temples. Also, the Dravidian style temples usually have a small top concave dome whereas the top of the northern style temple tends to be more complex and elaborate Michell The start of Dravidian temples was created by the Pallavas dynasty.
Historical remains of more than sixty Dravidian style temples can be traced back to this dynasty. Early in this rule, King Mahendra produced many rock cut temples in the south of India.
Rock cut temples were found throughout the early builds of Hindu temples. Additionally at this time many depictions of Gods, semi-divine, and royal figures were seen in the architecture of the temples, which became an integral part of the Hindu temple.
Towards the end of this era, temple building moved from rock cut temples to temples being their own physical structure, not relying on rock faces to build the temples. Some of the most extensive temples produced in this era were the rathaswhich translates into chariots.
These rathas temples are considered monolithic carved from one rock structureor rock-cut, and began to solidify the unique southern style. These rathas are considered the first known structures to fit the entire mold of the southern style.
A well known rathas is the shore temple in Mahabalipuram, which shows key Dravidian style characteristics in steep rising superstructures and repetitions in the wall scheme, along with images of the god Visnu Michell The Dravidian temple style of the Pallavas ended up bleeding into the Chalukya society due to the conflict between these two powers in the seventh and eighth centuries Michell Early Chalukya temples were mainly rock cut temples.
At this time, a distinctive split in the two types of southern styles Karnatak and Tamil is seen Tartakov Due to this bleeding there is some overlap between the temple styles in some northern sites. One unique aspect of temples built in this era is the use of two gateways and two separate hallways in the temples.
However, both the Chalukya and the Pavalla temples shared many of the same key characteristics of the southern style temples, even with their small physical differences and geographical differences Michell The use of rock cut temples grew in popularity again in this era, whereas the Pallavas began to step away from this type of architecture during the end of their reign.
One of the most impressive temples built in this era is the Kailasa, which stands 30 meters high. During this time of turmoil and war in the south, the Cholas became the ruling power. However, during this time there was not a lot of architectural growth, as seen in the previous eras. Many of the new temples built in this era followed the old Pallava southern temple style, notably using the Pallava octagonal towers.
However, the Cholas did have a couple of their own unique characteristics for temple buildings. Throughout these different time periods of temple development, the Hindus used sacred texts as a way to orchestrate these magnificent temples. The main genre of text used to build these temples are the Vastusastras, and were thought to be composed by Brahmins over the years.
In the vast Vastusasras there are some parts which refer to the northern temple style and some to the southern form.